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C2020-011 - IBM SPSS Statistics Level 1 v2 - Dump Information

Vendor Name : IBM
Exam Code : C2020-011
Exam Name : IBM SPSS Statistics Level 1 v2
Questions and Answers : 55 Q & A
Updated On : October 17, 2018
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IBM C2020-011 Exam (IBM SPSS Statistics Level 1 v2) Detailed Information

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Number of questions : 55
Time allowed in minutes: 90
Required passing score : 67%
Languages : English


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C2020-011 IBM SPSS Statistics Level 1 v2

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C2020-011 exam Dumps Source : IBM SPSS Statistics Level 1 v2

Test Code : C2020-011
Test Name : IBM SPSS Statistics Level 1 v2
Vendor Name : IBM
Q&A : 55 Real Questions

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IBM IBM SPSS Statistics Level

Predictive Analytics in 2018: What’s viable, Who’s Doing It, and how | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

In 2009, Netflix provided $1 million to any person who could improve the fine of its suggestion engine through 10%. It took two years, but a crew finally won. Netflix paid the bounty—then left out the code.

because it grew to become out, the improved algorithms “didn't appear to justify the engineering effort obligatory to bring them into a production environment.”

not simplest did the winning prediction engine fail to scale economically, it additionally addressed an outdated problem: The shift from mail to streaming throughout that equal two-yr window gave Netflix the entire facts it obligatory to increase more recent, more advantageous algorithms.

Predictive analytics, in other phrases, wasn’t a panacea. Nor, in the decade when you consider that, has it turn into one. but, in 2018, incremental features now not charge $1 million either:

  • you've got more information;
  • Storage is inexpensive; and
  • Cloud computing is very nearly infinitely scalable.
  • This submit details these adjustments and shows how a number of organizations—and not simply behemoths—have cultivated the predictive analytics panorama.

    What’s modified within the ultimate decade? 1. more statistics, greater storage, extra computing energy

    large, cloud-primarily based repositories of customer interactions, often called statistics lakes, are the uncooked supply material for predictive analytics functions.

    Many corporations have taken competencies of inexpensive cloud storage to stow away information for years—without even when you consider that its skills use. (what number of omitted information elements do you've got in Google Analytics, Google adverts, MailChimp, Marchex, Stripe, and equivalent functions?)

    That twin increase in scale—of information collected and accessibility to it—has solved two basic challenges of predictive analytics implementation.

    historically, raw computing vigor has been the different. As Andrew Pearson of Intelligencia notes, “without big hardware investments, predictive analytics courses both weren’t viable or too slow to be positive.”

    That, Pearson continued, has additionally modified: “Cloud-based mostly analytics systems have added big computer vigor into the mix.” increasingly powerful programs cracked open the door for actual-time predictive analytics.

    2. a global of precise-time predictions

    For some, the age of “precise-time” predictive analytics is right here. Judah Phillips, the co-founder and CTO of Vizadata and founding father of SmartCurrent, explained:

    We already live in a world of “true-time” predictive analytics. an easy predictive analysis is your arrival time in Waze. A more advanced real-time prediction occurs billions of instances worldwide each millisecond in matching certain kinds of digital promoting.

    additional, groups like Mintigo and Versium now present precise-time solutions for lead scoring, displaying that the transition is technically viable. viable, although, doesn’t suggest superb. Sam Underwood, a vice chairman at Futurety, recounted the complexity of vital integrations:

    mainly within the mid-market world, the equipment that accumulate information to become predictive modeling—CRM methods, social media aggregators, logistics, and buying methods—regularly shouldn't have pleasant APIs or different effortless mechanisms with which to right away accumulate and interpret records.

    That disconnect nevertheless thwarts even essentially the most fundamental business instances for real-time predictive analytics. David Longstreet, the manager information scientist at FanThreeSixty, provided an instance:

    In our world of activities and enjoyment, as an example, most sports groups don't know what number of individuals are in a stadium for a online game. groups know what number of tickets were allotted; despite the fact, they do not know in “precise time” what number of people are within the venue or stadium right through the experience.

    That talents gap hampers efforts to body of workers and stock the stadium appropriately. It’s also why interest in predictive analytics is virtually frequent, in spite of the fact that it vastly outpaces adoption.

    3. sluggish adoption but hovering pastime

    So how many businesses are actively the usage of predictive analytics? in line with analysis from Dresner Advisory functions, about 23%, a determine almost unchanged from the prior year.

    predictive analytics adoption

    under a quarter of organizations are the use of predictive analytics—notwithstanding just about all aspire to accomplish that. (graphic supply)

    activity, despite the fact, exceeds implementation. The identical research suggests that ninety% of companies “attach, at minimal, some significance to superior and predictive analytics.”

    So which questions are these 23% answering with predictive analytics? Let’s take a glance.

    Which questions can entrepreneurs answer with predictive analytics?

    “They want to predict everything,” according to Underwood. And who wouldn’t are looking to understand the exact foot (or net) site visitors by way of month, day, and hour to streamline staffing (or allocate server components)?

    but, Underwood endured, he tries to focal point valued clientele on “the one aspect that, if we could predict it for you, would revolutionize your business.”

    In digital advertising, Phillips outlined myriad use instances for predictive analytics, including the ability to foretell:

  • which advertising should be most beneficial—despite the fact you outline valuable.
  • which advertising and marketing campaigns, channels, touches, behaviors, and demographics are contributing to a company result, a form of “laptop gaining knowledge of–primarily based attribution.”
  • which phase, verify, or personalization a consumer is most likely to reply to.
  • the chance of clients to click on an advert, to download a whitepaper, to reply to an email, to reply to an offer, and other consumer response you define.
  • which leads will convert—besides the fact that children you define conversion.
  • which customers will purchase one or extra items for a pass-sell or upsell.
  • the variety of purchases or income for you to ensue sooner or later.
  • which consumers will have excessive/medium/low lifetime value.
  • consumer churn.
  • the unconventional possibility of predictive analytics, then, is not what which you could predict but the proven fact that you could predict. The ancient data you at present analyze can doubtless become a prediction.

    just make certain you've got the information.

    What do you should get begun with predictive analytics?

    statistics, facts, and information. “priority 1A and 1B are records sources,” stated Underwood. That’s actual whether you intend to license utility or hire an outside corporation. (both options are detailed later.)

    All uses require working towards information. That practising information, in flip, is used to construct a predictive model to apply to latest data. “The handiest difficulty we’ve run into,” Phillips mentioned, “is an organization’s obtainable facts for training.”

    How a great deal statistics is satisfactory? in keeping with Phillips:

    just a few thousand facts with a ample quantity of nice and terrible consequences can be satisfactory for advertising, earnings, and product prediction.

    not all facts is created (or stored) equally

    “You ought to remember—I grew up tearing tickets.”

    FanThreeSixty’s Longstreet has heard that equal explanation from venue managers who have spent numerous hours counting stacks of stubs after games. It’s a reason why vital information sources may not be quite simply obtainable, or obtainable in any respect.

    In stadiums, Longstreet defined, aspect-of-sale machines and ticket scanners exist for a single intention—to complete transactions rapidly and hold lines relocating. those systems do not keep statistics efficiently for extraction, nor can they deal with incessant server requests (except hungry fanatics don’t mind ready).

    For Underwood, clients are inclined to fall into one among two buckets, with half in every:

  • “The superior customer has an inside database installation and able to go. We pull within the facts, construct the mannequin, and are off and running.”
  • The other half have a mix of information sources, which inevitably include an offshore SQL database (or ten) managed via an exterior vendor whom no person can track down.
  • Stitching facts sources collectively is a massive building venture that may also require developing custom connectors, developing third-party FTP drops, and other complex but thankless initiatives. That work, despite the fact, is critical: models and their predictions are only as accurate as the records they’re constructed upon.

    Don’t overlook exterior data sources

    no longer all records comes from inside sources, either. external data sources, like weather studies, are often a crucial addition to records lakes, in particular for small organizations. As Underwood explained:

    restaurants may additionally use analytics to trigger e mail sends; for example, we will installation the electronic mail platform to sync with countrywide weather carrier information to ship an e mail about iced tea when the temperature in a given metro area is above 90 levels.

    Likewise, we will set off an e-mail to ship to purchasers in a given city if the gadget detects wind gusts of 40+ MPH. both of those use situations attain patrons in a key moment of want, negating downstream ad spend and beating rivals to the punch.

    so that you have a large, well-prepared dataset. What do you do with it?

    How do you flip facts into predictions?

    whereas the dilemma of insufficient statistics has faded, an extra continues to be:

    businesses require both a dedicated team of data scientists to parse through these units, or a software suite powerful sufficient to accomplish that swiftly. for many small and medium-sized agencies, this always ability settling for subpar utility, or forgoing it entirely.

    For companies of all sizes, solutions department into two alternate options:

  • purchase utility and create predictions in-house.
  • Pay an outside supplier to strengthen models and visualizations for you.
  • 1. Predictive analytics software

    The marketplace for predictive analytics software has ballooned: G2Crowd records 92 consequences within the category. Pricing varies extensively in line with the number of users and, in some cases, volume of information, however often begins round $1,000 per yr, notwithstanding it could without problems scale into six figures.

    G2Crowd lists both IBM’s SPSS statistics and SAS’s advanced Analytics as market leaders on the commercial enterprise level. along with RStudio, the pair are also tagged as leaders for mid-market groups; handiest IBM retains a place within the “Leaders” quadrant for small groups.

    historically, youngsters, even industry-main predictive analytics application hasn’t been an easy, start-appropriate-in experience. Take these two examples from IBM’s SPSS facts and RapidMiner:

    ibm spss statistics screenshot

    rapid miner screenshot

    whereas these structures are effective, clients have to structure information data, hyperlink nodes, and boost visualizations. gaining knowledge of a way to do this—and having the time to do it—is a really expert, full-time job. (To consider in any other case is to predict a Microsoft be aware license to jot down your awesome American Novel.)

    now not fairly, the market is transferring. RapidMiner has rolled out a SaaS beta that, with a bit of of manual adjustment, interprets an Excel sheet full of, say, employment information to a prediction of worker retention:

    rapid miner saas excel sheet

    A dataset in Excel—a place to begin wherein most marketers are already relaxed. rapid miner intake

    RapidMiner parses the Excel file ahead of crunching the numbers. rapidminer predictive visualization

    The ensuing visualization suggests the device’s prediction performance and correlations between datasets and retention.

    Some groups, like Vizadata’s Phillips, see the person-friendly SaaS mannequin as the future:

    we are democratizing records science, so that people with limited or no statistics science or engineering capabilities can predict. You without difficulty upload your records and click on subsequent. We do the entire heavy lifting.

    Our intelligence determines your stylish and independent variables and the classification of analysis to run. you can go along with our choices or override them—from regression, the place we can do forecasting and optimization, to both binary and multiclass classification, where we are able to predict the probability of results.

    vizadata screenshot

    user-friendly SaaS models make predictive analytics greater accessible to advertising and marketing teams devoid of data scientists.

    Like Vizadata, MIT’s Endor pursues this route. The platform makes use of a query-builder to allow anybody to ask questions like “where should we open our next save?” or “Who is probably going to are trying product X?” It then mines centered datasets to give answers, commonly in a depend of minutes.

    The inclusion of tangential datasets that fall outside consideration—or feasibility—for human observers is a habitual talents of predictive analytics. Endor’s creators offer an illustration:

    A advertising and marketing branch for a financial institution asks, “Who is going to get a loan within the subsequent six months?” laptop-gaining knowledge of engines can also become aware of a pool of, say, 5,000 shoppers who have a bank bank card and a high credit score rating, and are married—many of which could be false positives.

    Endor detects greater specific clusters of, say, couples about to get married or going through a divorce, founders who currently sold their startups to facebook, or valued clientele who lately graduated from a native precise-estate direction.

    Of path, if you want to outsource the manner utterly, outdoor companies can organize your records, build fashions, and visualize predictions for you.

    2. backyard ownersagencies providing bespoke solutions

    for most purchasers, Futurety begins by way of selecting the key business query—no longer a selected metric or visualization. customers may also are available in for one-off initiatives, annual re-runs of their information, or ongoing work.

    informed for You

    Webcast, October 17th: a way to solve Your advertising records Nightmare

    “The end result isn't all the time clear at the start,” Underwood defined. “after we’re supplying to somebody near the result, like a advertising manager, they’re customarily happy with the model, the finding, and the math behind it.”

    The “fruits” may be a few things:

  • Integration with a 3rd-birthday celebration platform, like an electronic mail customer, to automate predictive messaging.
  • simple-text predictive answers to book practitioners.
  • robust visualizations to demonstrate the system and cost to the C-Suite.
  • on the conclusion of each and every engagement, Futurety supplies the mannequin lower back to the customer for management and upkeep.

    Predictive analytics at work
  • Futurety has a small enterprise client that helps aspiring performing arts majors gain admission to their dream faculty. but few excessive schoolers have large talents of first rate programs. extra frequently than not, they understand only 1 identify: Julliard.
  • Futurety educated its mannequin on three years of placement statistics. Then, the use of new scholar information entered into a standard portal, predicted the place students would get accredited and be successful academically.
  • The predictive analytics mannequin, which Futurety updates annually, delivers a simple list of advised colleges for college students according to elements like grades and publicity to different musical or inventive styles.
  • The mannequin takes into consideration no matter if past placements graduated or won awards.
  • All-in-one area of interest suppliers

    FanThreeSixty serves a slender market: sporting venues. because they work with a relatively consistent dataset—season ticket, concession, and keepsake revenue—they know the latitude of company questions, statistics consequences, and important visualizations.

    This consistency incentivizes area of interest vendors like FanThreeSixty to develop proprietary dashboards to roll out to all consumers.

    The interface permits Longstreet’s group to maintain facts science in the historical past: “the key of computer learning is should you’re being caused behind the scenes.”

    Distilled utterly, FanThreeSixty’s intention (and Longstreet’s clarification of his function at dinner parties) is to “aid groups promote more tickets and hot canine.”

    Predictive analytics at work
  • FanThreeSixty mines ancient statistics to peer which concessions are most often bought with a hot dog at an enormous League Soccer venue.
  • If a consumer purchases a sizzling dog, concession workforce are triggered to ask whether a consumer would want to add essentially the most commonplace accompaniment. That suggestion—a prediction of fan want—adjustments in response to different variables.
  • Predictions accept as true with more than 20 datasets—everything from the home area of season ticket holders to the climate—to tailor messaging before, during, and after suits.
  • all the way through bloodless-climate games, for instance, FanThreeSixty can automate push notifications with tailor-made coupons, like purchase-three-get-one-free hot chocolate for a family unit of 4.
  • no matter if solutions are internally or externally managed, they‘ve long been ordinary in commercial enterprise corporations.

    Predictive analytics use instances on the business stage

    marketing departments in significant companies have used predictive analytics for years:

  • AutoTrader. AutoTrader uses data from its forty million monthly company to more suitable consider the every now and then prolonged consumer event. They developed propensity fashions in accordance with search habits and created high-cost lookalike audiences.
  • Editialis. The French publisher uses predictive analytics in its electronic mail campaigns to “assume engagement at someone level.” as a result, they’ve considered click-via-rates boost “dramatically.”
  • Predictive analytics can also coordinate offline and online interactions, with two clear use instances for entrepreneurs whose organizations have actual items or storefronts:

  • stronger pricing. Smartphone facts registers in-shop searching habits to enrich online or offline marketing concentrated on, approximating the advantages loved by means of ecommerce businesses.
  • stock administration. Full warehouses can charge money; empty cabinets can charge money. Folding on-line facts, reminiscent of search patterns, into revenue statistics can greater control stock, principally at a regional and native stage.
  • apart from exterior advertising and marketing campaigns, predictive analytics additionally helps interior project management. tremendous marketing campaigns have many moving constituents—a brand new advert campaign wants new creative, new copywriting, new landing pages, and many others.

    Coordinating the involvement of those groups and accurately estimating the time-to-launch is advanced. Many fail to get it right, from time to time at incredible fee.

    whiteboard planning

    entrepreneurs and utility corporations may additionally use predictive analytics for inner challenge administration apart from exterior campaigns.

    Predictive algorithms, as McKinsey notes, use a much wider lens that captures ancient patterns and entertaining assignment facets in a single body:

    whereas every construction challenge is entertaining, the underlying complexity drivers throughout initiatives are an identical and may be quantified. If corporations remember the complexity involved in a new project, they can estimate the hassle and components required to comprehensive it.

    Predictive analytics models “have in mind not best the complexity of the undertaking (each the purposeful and implementation elements) but also the complexity of the crew environment.”

    Predictive analytics at work:

    more correct inside mission management, in an example McKinsey offers, can have a major influence:

  • a company originally deliberate a product replace to take roughly 300 person-weeks of effort, an estimate according to the limited number of alterations between the current product and a brand new design.
  • however, that estimate failed to have in mind the undeniable fact that deliberate updates would affect various teams. Predictive analytics fashions did take it under consideration and estimated that the task would take three to 4 times as long.
  • consequently, the enterprise restrained the work to the long-established product group, enabling them to carry the update on time.
  • moreover helping organizations remedy inner and external challenges, predictive analytics is also the groundwork for some organizations.

    building a enterprise on predictive analytics

    Ken Lazarus, CEO of the recruiting platform Scout alternate, has an competencies—the business has been round for less than five years.

    That capacity that the company’s statistics sources are already primed for extraction into its predictive models that pair organizations with the correct recruiter.

    scout exchange processScout alternate’s predictions pair businesses with the correct recruiter.

    the single surest predictor of job placement, Lazarus and his team have found, is the song list of job recruiters. In contrast, pairing the appropriate job description with the right resume remains exceptionally tricky.

    “Job specs are horrible,” he lamented. “The records isn’t on the paper. CVs are fairly horrible, too.” (records augmentation, such as potential checking out and video interview decoding, Lazarus cited, offer capabilities improvements.)

    even so, holes remain. Candidates will never disclose negatives on their resume, and significant guidance might forever remain “non-statistics,” equivalent to whether a candidate is an excellent “tradition healthy.”

    Scaling facts gathering

    Scout alternate has honed its predictions through focusing on business shoppers—its algorithms feast on hundreds or heaps of openings from Fortune 500 consumers.

    because of this, the platform takes in roughly 1 million records features month-to-month, with each new job posting yielding an further 50 statistics points.

    scout exchange platform

    greater organization rankings indicate an service provider is extra responsive than his or her friends. Likewise, higher recruiter rankings indicate a recruiter is more more likely to be successful in submitting applicable candidates than his or her peers.

    nonetheless, human assessment with the aid of a recruiter—and their customer—is quintessential. Lazarus drew a parallel: “Would you let laptop learning select your spouse? No. however would you let it pick the correct matchmaker to aid you discover a companion? yes.”

    those that are attempting to remedy probably the most complex human concerns aren’t even within the business world.

    Predictive analytics with lifestyles or loss of life penalties

    The most fulfilling challenges for predictive analytics are those who deal with advanced, individualized human behavior, such because the likelihood that a patient or disaster-line texter will commit suicide.

    as a result of success or failure is measured in human lives, these challenges are also probably the most pressing. And whereas these projects operate past the scope of marketing and business, they suggest the knowledge for predictive analytics as it evolves.

    “reach VET is not about making an attempt to find the veteran who’s sitting within the motor vehicle in a parking lot with a gun in his lap,” Aaron Eagan, Veteran Affairs deputy director for innovation told a Washington conference.

    “What we discovered,” Eagan persisted, “is that veterans at highest chance of suicide [also have] greatly elevated prices of all-trigger mortality, accident morality, overdoses, violence, [and] opioids.” Proactive signals that trigger health professional assess-ins have more advantageous simple-care appointment attendance and reduced health facility admissions for mental fitness issues.

    crisis text line

    The project is comparable to a collaboration between Periscope statistics and disaster text Line, a text-based suicide hotline.

    Leaning on herbal language processing and predictive analytics, the program analyzed conversations, forecasted developments, and proficient more than 13,000 volunteers. The outcomes?

  • Wait times reduced to less than 5 minutes, an operational intention.
  • ability accelerated with the aid of 10% throughout top periods.
  • Responses had been prioritized based on machine-identified urgency.
  • Endor’s know-how has taken on similarly serious challenges. the use of 15 million facts elements from 50 established ISIS supporters, Endor identified eighty lookalike bills in less than half an hour, with most effective 35 false positives—expert investigation was nevertheless critical yet possible.

    In a collaborative mission with the U.S. defense advanced analysis mission agency, the platform additionally analyzed cell statistics to establish patterns to predict future riots.

    Conclusion

    Predictive analytics isn't proof against criticism: GDPR rebuffs one of the most equal collection strategies that swell records lakes. and not all predictions, even probably the most accurate, are smartly-received. (Famously, goal unwittingly suggested a father of his teenage daughter’s being pregnant in response to apparently benign looking habits.)

    Predictive analytics specialists element out that their algorithms search for patterns among values, no longer the values themselves. Regardless, inadequate records is not likely to dangle lower back the expansion of the business—the IoT, wearables, and different facts collectors already complement typical internet and app analytics.

    user-friendly SaaS systems are still an emerging opportunity. for most agencies, creating fashions and predictions from old data nonetheless requires a dedicated worker to navigate advanced application solutions or the outsourcing of that work to a seller.

    For these postponing predictive analytics tasks until the SaaS alternate options are greater mature, you could be shrewd to keep filling your facts lake.


    population-stage sexual behaviours in adolescent women earlier than and after introduction of the human papillomavirus vaccine (2003–2013) | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    abstract

    history: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is delivered broadly through school-primarily based immunization programs. Some agencies have expressed issue that HPV vaccination courses will outcome in a rise in sexual risk-taking behaviours amongst youth. We aimed to consider population-stage alterations in sexual behaviours earlier than and after implementation of the school-based HPV vaccination software in British Columbia.

    methods: In 2008, a college-based HPV vaccination application for girls changed into added in British Columbia. using facts from the BC Adolescent health Survey — a longitudinal provincial survey administered in colleges to trap adolescent physical and emotional fitness warning signs, we performed a linear trend evaluation on sexual fitness behaviours and chance factors in adolescent women earlier than and after the implementation of vaccination for HPV (2003, 2008 and 2013).

    outcomes: We analyzed facts for 298 265 girls who self-identified as heterosexual. The share of girls reporting ever having sexual activity diminished from 21.3% (2003) to 18.3% (2013; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.seventy nine). Self-document of sexual intercourse before the age of 14 years lowered enormously from 2008 to 2013 (adjusted OR 0.seventy six), as did stated substance use earlier than intercourse (adjusted OR for 2003–2013 0.69). There changed into no gigantic trade within the number of sexual partners stated (2003–2013). Between 2003 and 2013, girls’ suggested use of contraception and condoms increased, whereas pregnancy charges reduced.

    INTERPRETATION: considering that the implementation of faculty-primarily based HPV vaccination application in BC, sexual risk behaviours stated with the aid of adolescent ladies both reduced or stayed the equal. These findings make contributions evidence in opposition t any association between HPV vaccination and dangerous sexual behaviours.

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is probably the most generally diagnosed sexually transmitted infection on the earth.1 while the vast majority of HPV infections are transient and get to the bottom of naturally without intervention, persistent an infection with excessive-risk types of HPV may cause precancerous lesions that may additionally growth to cervical, anal, oropharyngeal or different reproductive tract cancers, or anogenital warts if left untreated.2 there is proof that vaccination classes for HPV with no trouble cut back prices of excessive-chance sorts of HPV at the population and scientific stage.3,4 Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline), Gardasil and Gardasil-9 (Merck) are the 3 vaccines approved through health Canada5 and informed for use by using the Canadian national Advisory Committee on Immunization.6 All three vaccines give protection to in opposition t HPV kinds 16 and 18, that are answerable for 70% of all cervical cancers.2 Gardasil and Gardasil-9 cut back the possibility of extra styles of HPV that are linked to genital warts and different cancers.

    Many countries have implemented countrywide publicly funded immunization courses for HPV. These programs are provided customarily in school to adolescent ladies aged 9–13 years and, in recent years, to boys.7 college-primarily based classes for HPV vaccination have shown huge coverage among adolescent populations in comparison with other methods.8 although, poor beliefs about HPV vaccination may additionally existing obstacles to uptake. fogeys of adolescent ladies have expressed subject that HPV vaccination at a younger age would encourage risky sexual behaviours corresponding to early sexual debut, extra sexual partners or unprotected intercourse,9–11 and that by means of consenting to having their baby receive the HPV vaccine that they might be condoning sexual pastime at younger a while.12

    Some evidence from health center-primarily based populations, billings through physicians and cross-sectional reviews of existing cohorts suggests no association between HPV vaccination and increased sexual chance behaviours after vaccination.13–15 despite the fact, few reports have examined inhabitants-level sexual behaviours over time. in this examine, we used a longtime provincial adolescent health survey to consider population-stage alterations in sexual health and dangerous behaviours over a decade, before and after the implementation of the faculty-primarily based HPV vaccination application, in British Columbia, Canada.eleven

    strategies Survey design and strategies

    The BC Adolescent fitness Survey has been carried out each 5 or 6 years due to the fact 1992 and represents greater than 1.4 million students enrolled in public schools within the province.sixteen it's a cluster-stratified randomized survey of classrooms in grades 7 through 12 in public schools across BC, administered between January and June of the principal yr. college students complete the questionnaire (comprising about 140 objects) by way of hand, facilitated by public health nurses and nursing college students.16 Questions included these about demographic suggestions, health, dangerous behaviours, fitness protecting factors and respondents’ experiences regarding fitness and other possibility exposures. The survey is anonymous and does not trap identifiable statistics. Survey items had been derived from latest surveys in Canada and the United States17 or pilot-confirmed in keeping with community session and trying out.sixteen most effective gadgets that were the same throughout all 3 survey years were blanketed during this analysis. The universal participation rate in the survey is set seventy five% every yr. extra descriptions of survey strategies were posted prior to now.sixteen

    college software for human papillomavirus vaccination

    In September 2008, BC launched a publicly funded, college-based pursuits program for HPV vaccination.18 all over the first 3 years of the application, girls in grades 6 and 9 (born in 1994 to 1997) have been provided vaccination for HPV. After 2011, the application changed into available for girls in grade 6 simplest, reaching these born in 1997 and later. Between 2008 and 2014, ladies had been provided a three-dose vaccination agenda, which modified to a 2-dose schedule after 2014 for girls under the age of 15 years who had been beginning the series.

    The school-based HPV vaccine program turned into no longer attainable for girls who completed the survey in 2003 and 2008. For 2013, all survey contributors would have had the opportunity to receive HPV vaccination in the event that they attended a BC faculty in grade 6 or 9. We bought uptake prices for HPV vaccination from the immunization insurance reviews supplied by the BC Centre for sickness manage, which capture all HPV vaccinations within the province. insurance prices were defined as the proportion of female college students enrolled within the primary grade (6 or 9) within the certain yr who have been up to date with HPV vaccination by June 30.19,20

    Sampling

    We analyzed facts from the 2003, 2008 and 2013 BC Adolescent fitness Surveys. We stratified by means of grade and health provider beginning enviornment (there are 16 areas in the 5 regional health authorities in BC) to reap a representative pattern at provincial and regional degrees. The pattern dimension become adjusted inside each grade and fitness service beginning enviornment stratum to ensure average errors of 3.5% or lower. In college districts that required signed parental consent, the response rate became lower than in college districts that required parental notification and pupil consent. for this reason, we over-sampled these districts (about 25%–30% of taking part faculty districts). We covered only the faculty districts that had participated in all 3 survey rounds; forty six of the fifty nine faculty districts (seventy seven.9%) met this criterion.

    We weighted facts after survey completion to alter for differential chance of sampling and differential response fees and scaled to provincial enrolment by consultants at data Canada. For this evaluation, we included only adolescent women who indicated that they have been heterosexual, in doubt, questioning or devoid of sights in the closing weighted sample. women who recognized as lesbian or bisexual (who represented < 5% of the entire sample) will be examined in a separate analysis, as a result of there may well be alterations in sexual choice-making amongst women who identify as lesbian or bisexual and, therefore, it's uncertain whether the HPV vaccine would have comparable impact.

    Measures

    Measures protected demographic assistance (age, city or rural home and even if born in Canada) and chosen sexual fitness behaviours (ever having sexual activity, age at the start intercourse, variety of sexual companions in the previous yr, substance use before ultimate intercourse, use of condoms for ultimate intercourse, use of contraception capsules eventually intercourse and pregnancy involvement). further descriptions of analyze measures and definitions have been published prior to now.16

    Statistical evaluation

    We used SPSS complex Samples edition 22.0 (IBM) to regulate for complex cluster-stratified sampling and weighted records. We mentioned the occurrence of self-stated sexual behaviours amongst heterosexual women for each and every year. To check the linear trend of sexual behaviours, contraception use and pregnancy involvement across years, we used age-adjusted logistic regression models (reference 12 months 2013). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) lower than 1 indicated that the trend (or odds) of the given sexual behaviour within the earlier survey 12 months became stronger than in 2013, and adjusted ORs greater than 1 indicated that the chances of the behaviour in the prior survey were lower than in 2013.

    Ethics approval

    The look at was authorised by the Behavioural research Ethics Board on the institution of British Columbia (H12-02630).

    outcomes

    The weighted and scaled inhabitants estimate for adolescent women who recognized as heterosexual or had been in doubt turned into 302 626 (desk 1), of whom 123 166 (40.7%) participated in 2003, ninety nine 925 (33.0%) in 2008 (prevaccination neighborhood) and seventy nine 535 (26.3%) in 2013 (postvaccination group). Demographic elements are offered in table 1. The age latitude turned into 12–18 years for girls in all years. Most girls lived in urban areas (between 86.6% and 88.0% for all years), and most have been born in Canada (81.three%–82% for all years). within the first yr of the BC school-primarily based HPV vaccination program (2008/09), uptake quotes were sixty one.eight% among female college students in grade 6. quotes reduced somewhat the following year but then increased over time to sixty eight.8% in 2013.19 amongst feminine students in grade 9, sixty two.1% of eligible ladies had been vaccinated in 2008/09, and rates reduced a little to 61.7% in 2011 (table 2).20

    table 1:

    features of feminine members within the BC Adolescent fitness Survey, through years 2003, 2008 and 2013

    desk 2:

    coverage quotes of the faculty-primarily based vaccination program for human papillomavirus among female contributors in grades 6 and 9 in British Columbia, 2008–2013

    members had been asked no matter if that they had had intercourse of their lifetime, and handiest those with valid responses were covered in the analysis (population estimate 298 265; 1.5% of responses have been missing from the demographic inhabitants). simplest girls who spoke back sure to this question answered subsequent questions regarding sexual behaviours. occurrence and adjusted OR between time points among women who recognized as heterosexual are introduced in table three. The incidence of ladies reporting ever having sexual activity reduced incessantly between survey years, from 21.3% in 2003 to 20.6% in 2008 to 18.three% in 2013. When evaluating prevaccination years (2003 and 2008) with the postvaccination yr (2013), the adjusted ORs for ever having sexual intercourse had been 0.seventy nine (ninety five% confidence interval [CI] 0.71–0.88) and zero.89 (ninety five% CI 0.eighty two–0.98), respectively, which suggests that ladies were significantly much less likely to report ever having sex after introduction of the HPV vaccination software.

    table 3:

    Sexual behaviours in feminine individuals between 2003 and 2013, in response to the BC Adolescent fitness Survey

    among those who have ever had intercourse, the percentage having intercourse earlier than the age of 14 years also diminished over time, with a significant exchange followed between 2008 and 2013 (adjusted OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.61–0.ninety six). There changed into no tremendous exchange within the occurrence of getting three or greater sexual partners over time (adjusted OR for 2003–2013 1.02, 95% CI 0.83–1.26; adjusted OR for 2008–2013 0.90, ninety five% CI 0.seventy five–1.09). The percent of girls who used resources equivalent to alcohol or drugs earlier than their closing intercourse extended a little between 2003 (26.0%) and 2008 (28.three%), and then reduced in 2013 (19.3%). The fashion analyses confirmed that prevalence of substance use earlier than ultimate intercourse decreased after implementation of the HPV vaccination application (adjusted OR for 2003–2013 0.sixty nine, 95% CI 0.58–0.eighty two).

    reported use of condoms and contraception capsules expanded from outdated years to 2013. Condom use became 65.6% in 2003, which reduced to 63.three% in 2008 and extended to 68.9% in 2013. Condom use greatly multiplied from old years to 2013 after implementation of the HPV vaccination application (adjusted OR for 2003–2013 1.19, 95% CI 1.02–1.39). Oral contraceptive use multiplied by means of 9.four% between 2003 and 2013 (adjusted OR 1.43, ninety five% CI 1.21–1.sixty seven). The incidence of girls who pronounced being pregnant decreased with the aid of 42% from 2003 to 2013 (adjusted OR for 2003–2013 0.56, ninety five% CI 0.forty–0.80).

    Interpretation

    After implementation of the publicly funded school-based vaccination program for HPV in September 2008 in BC, sexual behaviours and sexual health warning signs among adolescent women either more suitable towards safer sexual health practices or did not trade enormously. Our evaluation of records from the BC Adolescent fitness Survey means that the implementation of a faculty-primarily based application for HPV vaccination became now not associated with a rise in dangerous sexual behaviours amongst adolescent women on the population stage.

    issues that the HPV vaccine may lead to more and more risky sexual behaviours originate from the perception that with the aid of taking part in an intervention that reduces chance, one can also have interaction in better-possibility behaviours (often known as possibility compensation21 or chance homeostasis).22 reports on risk notion after HPV vaccination imply that related adolescent beliefs don't seem to be aligned with possibility compensation thought. Two 2012 experiences mentioned that, besides the fact that children adolescent girls who had received the HPV vaccine perceived themselves to be at decrease chance of buying HPV, they didn't perceive a lessen chance for different sexually transmitted infections, and most suggested the persevered want for safer sexual practices.23,24 it's price noting that a comprehensive vaccine schooling software turned into paired with the implementation of the HPV vaccination application in BC.25 This could have offered participants with a much better knowing of the limits of the HPV vaccine for insurance plan towards different sexually transmitted infections.

    A potential cohort study that used medical indicators to measure sexual behaviours amongst 11- to 12-year-ancient women enrolled in a managed care firm in the US, who were exposed and not exposed to the HPV vaccine, discovered no modifications between agencies in incidence of pregnancy, trying out for sexually transmitted diseases or contraceptive counselling.15 a different analyze found no improved chance in composite effects of being pregnant and sexually transmitted infection among adolescent girls after implementation of Ontario’s grade eight HPV vaccination software.13 These stories examined medical consequences related to risky sexual behaviours as a proxy for direct measures of such behaviours, corresponding to age at the beginning intercourse or variety of sexual companions. stories of self-mentioned direct measures of risky behaviours in a similar fashion stated no association between measures of sexual debut and HPV vaccination.26,27 other research has also found no relationship between HPV vaccination and the number of sexual partners,26,27 which is according to the outcomes of our analyze. In different analysis, use of condoms and contraceptives was normally larger among younger ladies who had received the vaccine than folks that had no longer.4,26,27 We did not discover different stories that examined the affiliation between HPV vaccination and substance use earlier than intercourse.

    The main energy of our analyze is that it is representative of the BC inhabitants on account of its big pattern size and sophisticated sampling method the use of an established provincial adolescent fitness survey, accompanied by using a excessive response expense. previous research has concentrated peculiarly on sanatorium-based mostly populations, retrospective cohorts and smaller go-sectional study samples.

    barriers

    Our evaluation has some barriers. We did not assess the direct relationship between individual HPV vaccination status and sexual behaviours, and we can not infer particular person-degree or causal relationships because the Adolescent health Survey does not trap identifiable information that can also be linked to public health vaccination records. however, a self-stated query on HPV vaccination popularity is being covered for future survey cycles. For this ecological examine, we used time as a trademark to separate the prevaccination program inhabitants (2003 and 2008) from the postvaccination population (2013). We don't imply that the accompanied sexual behaviours over time are brought on by the implementation of HPV vaccination in BC. outdated evidence from the survey has proven a downward vogue in harmful sexual behaviours because earlier than 2003.sixteen Sexual and reproductive fitness behaviours are influenced by way of a complex interplay of contextual elements including the criminal and political atmosphere, in addition to sociocultural and financial elements.28 there's facts of a worldwide trend toward safer intercourse practices in view that earlier than the HPV vaccine become attainable.29,30 In sub-Saharan Africa the place HPV vaccination is more often than not absent, a multicountry examine the usage of statistics from 2000 to 2010 observed developments towards older age of sexual debut and extending use of contraception over time.31 population facts within the US for 1976–2016 confirmed that fewer kids had been undertaking behaviours comparable to relationship, alcohol consumption and intercourse, with a pointy decline due to the fact 2000.30 Sexual behaviour records are self-mentioned and may be area to consider and social desirability bias. however, this bias become doubtless current in all survey years.

    Conclusion

    Our finding that self-stated risky sexual behaviours reduced or stayed the identical among adolescent ladies in BC after introduction of a school HPV vaccination software with uptake of about sixty eight% can assist mitigate considerations in line with possibility compensation concept.

    Future analyses should explore modifications between girls who determine with different sexual orientations reminiscent of homosexuality and consider sexual behaviour among girls who received the HPV vaccine and people who did not. additional reviews can be performed to discover countrywide traits or verify variations between distinct provincial vaccination classes.

    Acknowledgements

    The authors would want to thank Dr. Yuko Homma and Dr. Gu Li (Stigma and Resilience amongst prone youth Centre, The tuition of British Columbia), who provided one of the crucial statistical analysis for the article.

    Footnotes
  • visible abstract obtainable at www.cmaj.ca/search for/suppl/doi:10.1053/cmaj.180628/-/DC1

  • Competing interests: Gina Ogilvie and Simon Dobson pronounced antibody assay trying out obtained from Merck that become carried out as a part of an independent study monitoring antibody response to the HPV vaccine. The assay checking out turned into finished for free of charge to the study. No other competing hobbies have been declared.

  • this text has been peer reviewed.

  • Contributors: Gina Ogilvie, Simon Dobson, Monika Naus and Elizabeth Saewyc contributed appreciably to the theory and design of the study. Monika Naus and Elizabeth Saewyc contributed significantly to statistics acquisition. Felicia Phan and Elizabeth Saewyc contributed greatly to statistics evaluation. Gina Ogilvie, Felicia Phan and Heather Pedersen significantly contributed to the interpretation of the facts. Felicia Phan and Heather Pedersen drafted the initial manuscript. all of the authors reviewed and revised the manuscript significantly for crucial highbrow content material, gave closing approval of the version to be published, and agreed to be dependable for all features of the work in guaranteeing that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any a part of the work are as it should be investigated and resolved.

  • Funding: This analyze was funded in part by way of Canadian Institutes of health research (CIHR) grant no. MOP 119472 to Elizabeth Saewyc (main investigator) and a CIHR basis furnish to Gina Ogilvie (most important investigator).

  • records sharing: The BC Adolescent health Survey is performed by means of the McCreary Centre Society; they supply acclaim for facts access to established fitness and social science researchers whose proposed research aligns with the common purposes of the survey. facts can be found for analysis only on site at the McCreary Centre Society in Vancouver, BC, on its comfy computer systems, after approval of the proposed analyses, a signed Memorandum of figuring out and payment of information entry expenses to provide laptop entry and technical help. additional guidance on accessing the BC Adolescent fitness Surveys is attainable at www.mcs.bc.ca/research_partnerships.

  • Disclaimer: The funders had no function in analyze design, facts assortment and evaluation, decision to post or guidance of the manuscript.

  • authorized August 20, 2018.

  • IBM is rushing up SPSS with Apache Spark | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    IBM nowadays announced that it's bettering a few of its existing application products with the Apache Spark open-supply data processing engine, including the SPSS predictive analytics application.

    IBM purchased SPSS for $1.2 billion in 2009. SPSS itself started at Stanford college in 1968 and is frequent in records courses at universities.

    IBM is peculiarly incorporating Spark into SPSS Modeler and SPSS Analytic Server, a spokesman informed VentureBeat in an e-mail.

    Spark is also being applied to IBM’s BigInsights, Streams, and DataWorks software, in response to a statement.

    The Sparkification of IBM comes after massive Blue announced a major dedication to the open-supply utility in June. at the time, IBM introduced Spark as a provider on its Bluemix cloud; that service is now frequently purchasable.

    IBM has made more than 60 contributions to Spark due to the fact the June announcement, based on the commentary.


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    Deciphering microbial landscapes of fish eggs to mitigate emerging diseases | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Salmon egg sample collection for microbial community analysis

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) eyed eggs and the incubation water from each of the tanks were collected separately from a commercial hatchery in Scotland. The eggs were spawned in November 2010 and incubated in a flow-through system at a flow rate of 25–30 l s−1 at 3–5 °C. The water source for the incubation of the salmon eggs is a catchment area that is an upland peat moor with conifer plantations, grazing cattle, sheep and wild animals, ∼3 km from the hatchery and is delivered via a hydroelectric scheme using a hill loch as a source. Before the water enters the egg incubators, it is filtered through a 10-μm filter and a carbon filter and is subsequently treated with ultraviolet light for a few seconds. Eggs received a 1-h 1000 p.p.m. formalin bath treatment weekly, and were collected on 14 February 2011. For more details on each of the 12 egg samples, see Supplementary Table 1. The microbial community was obtained by shaking the eggs and incubator water at 180 r.p.m. at 6 °C for 12 h, and subsequent centrifugation of the water at 24 000 × g at 4 °C for 20 min. Cell pellets were resuspended in sterile demineralized water, concentrating the original sample 30–80 times, and stored at −80 °C before DNA isolation. One aliquot was stored at −80 °C in 20% (v/v) glycerol for bacterial isolation (Supplementary Figure 1).

    Scanning electron microscopy

    A selection of salmon egg samples showing visual signs of Saprolegnia infection were collected and stored in a 1% gluteraldehyde and 4% formalin solution. Subsequently, samples were fixed in 2.5% gluteraldehyde and then treated with 1% osmium tetroxide for 1 h. Samples were dehydrated with alcohol and subsequently dried using hexamethyldisilazane. Dried samples were coated in gold using an EMitech Limited (Ashford, UK) K550 sputter coater. Coated samples were viewed in a Zeiss (Oberkochen, Germany) EVO MA10 scanning electron microscope at 10 kV.

    Metagenomic DNA isolation and storage

    DNA was isolated from the pellet suspensions (described above) in duplicate with PowerSoil DNA isolation kit (MO BIO Laboratories, Inc., Carlsbad, CA, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Duplicate DNA extracts were pooled and an aliquot was analysed on a 0.8% (w/v) agarose gel with SmartLadder MW-1700-10 (Eurogentec, Seraing, Belgium) as a size marker. The DNA concentration was measured with a NanoDrop 1000 Spectrophotometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., Waltham, MA, USA). DNA samples were stored at −80 °C.

    PhyloChip analysis

    PhyloChip analysis of the bacterial and archaeal community structure of each sample (∼0.5 μg DNA) was conducted at Second Genome (South San Francisco, CA, USA). Sample and data processing and data reduction were performed as described previously (Hazen et al., 2010). Annotation of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was performed based on the Greengenes database (McDonald et al., 2012). Cluster analysis with Bray–Curtis similarity measures was performed in Primer-E v6.1.13 (Primer-E Ltd, Ivybridge, UK). Nonmetric multidimensional scaling and analysis of similarity (Ramette, 2007) were performed in Paleontological Statistics freeware package (PAST v2.10, http://folk.uio.no/ohammer/past/) (Hammer et al., 2001).

    Clone library sequencing of oomycete and fungal communities

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of fungal and oomycete rRNA genes was PCR amplified with primers ITS1F and ITS4 (White et al., 1990; Gardes and Bruns, 1993), and Oom-Up5.8S (5′-TGCGATACGTAATGCGAATT-3′) and Oom-Lo28S (5′-ACTTGTTCGCTATCGGTCTCGCA-3′) (Mazzola et al., 2002; Tambong et al., 2006), respectively. Amplification reactions were conducted in 50 μl volumes with Taq DNA polymerase (Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions with 1 μl DNA (5–10 ng), 1 cycle at 94 °C for 3 min, 40 cycles at 94 °C for 1 min, 50 °C for 45 s, 72 °C for 1 min and 1 cycle at 72 °C for 7 min. The dominant representatives of fungal and oomycete populations were determined by sequencing clone libraries. Amplicons were cloned into the TOPO-TA vector and transformed into chemically competent Escherichia coli Top10 cells according to the manufacturer’s protocol (Invitrogen). Inserts were PCR amplified from intact cells using primer pair M13F/M13R and purified with ExoSAP-IT (USB, Cleveland, OH, USA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. A total of 20 and 5–6 clones per sample were selected for fungal and oomycete amplicon sequencing, respectively, with primer T7 and GenomeLab DTCS Quick Start Kit using the Beckman Coulter CEQ 8000 Genetic Analysis system (Beckman Coulter, Brea, CA, USA). Sequences of at least 400 bp were analysed by BLASTn (Altschul et al., 1990) on the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database website (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/). A cutoff of >93% identity and a 400-bp alignment length were used for identification (Pounder et al., 2007; Nilsson et al., 2008).

    T-RFLP analysis of fungal community

    Fluorescently labelled PCR products of the ITS region were generated using the D4-labelled ITS1F primer in conjunction with D3-labelled ITS4 primer. PCR was performed in quadruplicate 25 μl reactions containing 1 × Promega PCR Master mix (Promega, Madison, WI, USA), 200 mM primer, 4 μg μl−1 bovine serum albumin and 0.1–0.5 μl DNA template (0.5–5 ng) with above-mentioned cycling conditions. PCR products were digested in duplicate reactions with 10 U of the restriction endonucleases HaeIII and HhaI at 37 °C for 6 h. Restriction enzymes were heat inactivated at 80 °C for 10 min. Restriction fragments were purified by ethanol precipitation and fragments were resuspended in 40 μl of sample loading solution and 0.25 μl 600 size standards. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fragments were separated using the CEQ 8000 Genetic Analysis System with denaturation for 120 s at 90 °C, injection for 15 s at 2 kV, separation for 90 min at 4.8 kV and a capillary temperature of 50 °C. T-RFLP profiles were analysed using the Fragment Analysis Module of the CEQ 8000 Genetic Analysis Software, with a slope threshold of 10, 1% relative peak height threshold, 95% confidence level, quartic calibration curve with PA, ver. 1, dye mobility calibration and calculated dye spectra. The baseline value was set to exclude background peaks that commonly occurred in tandem with the DNA standard peaks. Fragments were binned with a 1-bp margin using the AFLP tool in the Fragment Analysis software. Profiles that consisted of mean fragment length and fluorescence intensities were generated for each sample. As different amounts of DNA were used for amplification between samples, no accurate analysis of T-RF abundance could be carried out and we analysed the data only on the presence/absence of T-RF peaks. Cluster analysis was performed as mentioned above.

    Isolation of oomycetes and fungi from salmon eggs

    Per sample, one to two salmon eggs were placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA, Oxoid, Hampshire, UK). The cultures were incubated for 2 weeks at room temperature (20±1 °C) and for 17–18 days at 18 °C. The oomycete and fungal isolates were purified by subculturing hyphal tips three times on fresh PDA supplemented with 100 μg ml−1 streptomycin and 50 μg ml−1 tetracycline.

    ITS sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of oomycete isolates

    For genomic DNA extraction, hyphae were harvested in 90 μl of 0.5 M NaOH and disrupted by Mixer Mill MM400 (Retsch, Haan, Germany) at a frequency of 30/s for 35 s in the presence of one sterile glass bead. The tube was placed at room temperature for 30 min to 24 h until complete cell wall disruption. The hyphal suspension was diluted with sterile 0.1 M Tris-HCl (pH 7.0) and ITS rRNA genes were amplified with ITS1 and ITS4 primers in 25 μl volumes, each consisting of 2 μl of diluted DNA template with GoTaq DNA polymerase (Promega) according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The amplification program consisted of 1 cycle at 94–95 °C for 2–5 min, 30–35 cycles at 94 °C for 1 min, 55 °C, 60 °C or 65 °C for 30–60 s, 72 °C for 30–120 s and 1 cycle at 72 °C for 5–10 min. PCR products were sequenced by Macrogen Inc. (Amsterdam, The Netherlands). Contigs were created from the sequence fragments using Geneious v6.1.4 (Kearse et al., 2012) and aligned using MAFFT v7.0 with G-INS-i algorithm using default settings (Katoh and Standley, 2013), including previously identified reference sequences (Sandoval-Sierra et al., 2013). Two different approaches were applied: Bayesian inferences and Maximum Likelihood inference. Bayesian inference analysis with Markov-chain Monte Carlo, MrBayes v3.2.1 (Ronquist et al., 2012), was run at temperature parameter of 0.2, sample frequency of 1000 and three independent runs with two hot and six cold chains each for 20 million generations. Estimation of the effective samples size in the Markov-chain Monte Carlo and determination of a suitable burn-in time was checked with Tracer v1.5 (Rambaut and Drummond, 2007). A burn-in of 2 million generations was discarded after checking for stability on the log-likelihood curves, and the remaining trees from the independent runs were combined to build a 50% majority-rule consensus tree. The evolutionary model used for the molecular data in MrBayes was HKY+G and was obtained by running the data sets in jModelTest 2 (Darriba et al., 2012). Maximum Likelihood inference analysis was carried out with RaxmlGUI v7.4.2 (Silvestro and Michalak, 2012) with a random starting tree, included the GTRGAMMA option and employed the rapid hill-climbing algorithm (Stamatakis et al., 2007). Clade support was assessed with 1000 bootstrap replicates, with the rapid-hill climbing algorithm (Stamatakis et al., 2008). Phylogram trees were visualized with FigTree (tree.bio.ed.ac.uk/software/figtree/).

    Isolation, in vitro activity and identification of Actinobacterial isolates

    Cell pellets obtained from the salmon eggs samples and stored in 20% glycerol at −80 °C were resuspended in sterile demineralized water and dilution plated on humic acid-vitamin (HA) and starch agar (GA) modified from Zhang (1990). Plates were incubated at 30 °C and bacterial colony-forming units were determined after 6 weeks. HA medium, modified from Hayakawa and Nonomura (1987), contained 1.0 g l−1 humic acid (dissolved in 10 ml of 0.2 N NaCl), 0.5 g l−1 Na2HPO4, 1.71 g l−1 KCl, 0.05 g l−1 MgSO4.7H2O, 0.01 g l−1 FeSO4.7H2O, 0.02 g l−1 CaCO3 and 18.0 g l−1 agar. Starch agar (GA) (Zhang, 1990) contained 15 g l−1 potato starch (soluble starch), 0.5 g l−1 KNO3, 0.5 g l−1 K2HPO4, 0.5 g l−1 MgSO4.7H2O, 5.0 g l−1 NaCl, 5.0 g l−1 KCl, 0.01 g l−1 FeSO4.7H2O and 18.0 g l−1 agar. Both HA and GA were pH adjusted to 7.0–7.4 and were supplemented with 1 ml l−1 of B vitamin solution, 20 μg ml−1 nalidixic acid, 20 μg ml−1 Trimethoprim and 100 μg ml−1 Delvocid after autoclaving. B vitamin solution (Nonomura and Ohara, 1969) (suspended in Milli-Q water) included 0.5 mg ml−1 of thiamine hydrochloride, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, pyridoxine hydrochloride, myo-inositol, calcium pantothenate and 4-aminobenzoic acid and 0.25 mg ml−1 D(+)-biotin. From each sample, 40 single colonies were randomly isolated at different time points from both media and purified on GA or tryptone soya broth (Oxoid) supplemented with 10% sucrose (TSBS) with or without 1.8% (w/v) agar. Isolates were stored at −20 °C and −80 °C in 20–40% glycerol. In vitro antagonistic activity of the isolates against Saprolegnia diclina 1152F4 was determined by placing an agar plug of each Actinobacterial isolate at the edge of 1/5th strength PDA plates. After incubation at 30 °C for 7–10 days, an agar plug from a fresh S. diclina 1152F4 culture was placed in the centre of the plate. Plates were incubated for 4–5 days at 25 °C and inhibition of hyphal growth was scored. For DNA isolation, Actinobacterial cells were disrupted by incubation of 50 μl TSBS culture at 95 °C for 10 min and PCR was performed with Actinobacterial-specific primers Com2xf (5′-AAACTCAAAGGAATTGACGG-3′) and Ac1186r (5′-CTTCCTCCGAGTTGACCC-3′) (Schäfer et al., 2010). Amplification reactions were conducted in 25 μl volumes using GoTaq DNA polymerase (Promega) according to the manufacturer’s instructions, with 1 cycle at 95 °C for 3 min, 35 cycles of 94 °C for 30 s, 60 °C for 30 s, 72 °C for 30 s and 1 cycle at 72 °C for 15 min. All isolates positive for the amplified fragments were sent for 16S rRNA sequencing by Macrogen Inc. Sequence identity was obtained by comparison with sequences deposited in the Greengenes database (McDonald et al., 2012) (http://greengenes.lbl.gov/) and Ribosomal Database Project (Cole et al., 2009) (RDP, http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/). Among the 526 Actinobacterial OTUs with significant differential abundance based on the PhyloChip analyses, the 16S rRNA sequences (850 bp) of 413 OTUs were downloaded from the Greengenes database. These sequences were subjected to phylogenetic analysis with ClustalW in MEGA5 (Tamura et al., 2011) to generate a neighbour-joining (Saitou and Nei, 1987) consensus tree with 1000 bootstrap replicates (Felsenstein, 1985). The evolutionary distances were analysed by Tamura–Nei model (Tamura and Nei, 1993) and the evolutionary rates among sites were modelled by a gamma distribution.

    Salmon eggs for in vivo experiments

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) eyed eggs of strain AquaGen Atlantic QTL-innOva IPN from AquaGen AS (Trondheim, Norway) were used for the in vivo experiments. Salmon egg ages at the day of shipment were as follows: for the pathogenicity assay of Saprolegnia isolates, the eggs were 385 degree-days; for the in vivo assays with the Actinobacterial isolates, the eggs were 320 degree-days. All egg batches were disinfected during incubation and before transport with buffodine (1:100, 10 min) and treated with formalin according to Aquagen’s in-house protocols. Upon arrival, blank, pin-eyed and white eggs were removed if observed.

    Preparation of Saprolegnia inocula and pathogenicity assays

    Live eggs were placed in 97–98 °C sterile distilled water or well water and incubated for 80–150 s. The resulting dead eggs were drained and placed on PDA agar plates overgrown with Saprolegnia isolates and incubated overnight at 25 °C. Each egg was then transferred into a well of a 24-well cell-culture plate (Greiner Bio-One, Kremsmünster, Austria) and further incubated for 1 day at 15–25 °C until Saprolegnia hyphal colonization was visible. The slow-growing Saprolegnia isolates 746F3 and 736F2 were further incubated for 2 and 4 days, respectively. After overnight acclimatization of the live eggs, two Saprolegnia-infected dead salmon eggs (inocula) were added to each cup containing 30 live eggs in a similar setup as described in Figure 4c, with the exception that here 3 l of dechlorinated Norwegian tap water, and not well water, was used. Isolate 736F2 was added to the salmon eggs 2 days later as this isolate was a slow grower. Each treatment consisted of an incubator containing three cups with 30 salmon eggs each. In the control treatment no Saprolegnia was added. The water temperature was maintained at 10±1 °C by adding ice blocks into each incubation unit every 12 h. After 8 days post inoculation(6 days post inoculation for isolate 736F2), the mortality percentage of the salmon eggs was determined visually.

    In vivo bioassays to test disease suppression by Actinobacteria

    The incubation setup (Supplementary Figure 4) was located in a ventilated room of constant 15 °C ambient temperature. The egg incubation units, containing 2 l of well water (Supplementary Table 6), were randomly distributed in an incubation tank with circulating water of 5–7 °C. Polystyrene panels were used to cover the incubation tank to maintain darkness and insulation without blocking aeration. Each incubation unit was aerated with an air stone connected to an air pump. Dissolved oxygen levels and temperature, measured with a pH/Oxi 340i multi-parameter instrument (WTW GmbH, Weilheim, Germany), ranged from 101.8% to 103.4% and from 5.7 °C to 6.4 °C, respectively. Within each egg incubation unit, 51±1 live eggs were placed in perforated plastic cups in triplicate. The cups were stabilized by placing a Petri dish (145 mm diameter) and a weight on top. The eggs were introduced into each incubation unit immediately after arrival from Norway and allowed to acclimatize and rehydrate overnight.

    Actinobacterial isolates were inoculated in TSBS and incubated at 30 °C at 200 r.p.m. for 2–4 days. Cultures were centrifuged at 3400 × g for 5–15 min at room temperature. The cell pellets were washed and resuspended in sterile well water and OD600 values determined by spectrophotometry for the Frondihabitans sp. and Arthrobacter sp. For the Streptomyces isolates, the OD600 could not be determined because of aggregation of cells. Approximate equal amounts of cells were determined based on an estimate of the size of the cell pellet after centrifugation. On day 1, the Frondihabitans sp. and Arthrobacter sp. were added to the incubation units at a final concentration of 107 cells per ml or 0.5 ml and 1.5 ml of Streptomyces sp. 1 and 2, respectively. In the consortium of all four isolates, one quarter of the cell suspensions of each bacterium was added. After 3 days of incubation, two S. diclina 1152F4 inocula were placed at opposite sides in each cup. As control treatments, salmon eggs were treated with S. diclina only or with malachite green and S. diclina. Each treatment was conducted in duplicate, that is, two independent experimental incubation units with three technical replicates per incubation unit. For those eggs that received malachite green treatment, the eggs were placed in 1.5 l of 2 p.p.m. malachite green solution for 60–70 min with aeration. Subsequently, eggs were gently rinsed in 500 ml fresh well water and placed back into their incubation units. This was repeated every 4 days, replacing the incubation unit water with fresh well water. Hyphal expansion was photographed and assessed every other day. Based on the photos of each group of eggs, ImageJ v1.44n (Schneider et al., 2012) was used to measure the diameter of hyphal expansion. As a proxy for infection of salmon eggs by Saprolegnia, we determined hyphal attachment by lifting infection inocula with a pair of tweezers and counting the number of eggs attached to the hyphal patch (Supplementary Movie 1). Hyphal attachment was determined at day 14 (10 days post inoculation) when attachment in the control, S. diclina only, was >50% (Supplementary Table 5).

    Nucleotide sequence accession numbers

    The sequences of the 16S rRNA sequences of Frondihabitans sp., Arthrobacter sp. and Streptomyces sp. 1 and 2 have been deposited in GenBank under accession numbers KF741274, KF741275, KF741276 and KF741277, respectively.

    Colonization of Actinobacteria on the egg surface

    Colonization of the applied Actinobacterial isolates on the salmon egg surfaces was determined by harvesting one to two eggs from each cup at 0 and 10 days post inoculation, rinsing with 1 ml of sterile well water three times, draining briefly on sterile filter paper and rolling gently over the surface of HA and GA agar plates (Supplementary Movie 2). All plates were incubated at 30 °C for 5–6 weeks, and 2–8 colonies that were morphologically similar to each of the four isolates used for inoculation were purified and subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing.

    Statistical analyses

    For each experiment, obtained data were tested for normal distribution and homogeneity of variances before conducting parametric or nonparametric statistical analyses. Disease incidence of salmon egg samples was analysed with Mann–Whitney U-test (P<0.05). The pathogenicity of Saprolegnia isolates were compared with one-way analysis of variance and with post hoc Dunnett analysis (P<0.05). Cluster analysis and nonmetric multidimensional scaling and analysis of similarity of T-RFLP-derived data for the fungal community and PhyloChip-derived data for the bacterial and archaeal communities were conducted using Bray–Curtis similarity measures in Primer-E and in PAST. The differences in total number of bacterial and archaeal OTUs associated with diseased versus healthy eggs was analysed by Student’s t-test (P>0.05). Phylogenetic groups containing OTUs that have a significant differential abundance between diseased and healthy eggs were identified with Student’s t-test (P<0.005) in Microsoft Excel. Percentage of hyphal attachment was analysed with Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance (P<0.05). Area under hyphal expansion curve and area under hatching percentage curve of different treatments in the bioassay were compared with Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance (P<0.05). All statistical analyses were performed in IBM SPSS Statistics v20 (Armonk, NY, USA), unless mentioned otherwise.


    Family decision maker perspectives on the return of genetic results in biobanking research | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The authors thank Maureen Wilson, PhD, and Anthony Molisani, MA, for their assistance in the preparation of the manuscript.

    The GTEx Consortium Members: John Lonsdale, Jeffrey Thomas, Mike Salvatore, Rebecca Phillips, Edmund Lo, Saboor Shad, Richard Hasz, Gary Walters, Fernando Garcia, Nancy Young, Barbara Foster, Mike Moser, Ellen Karasik, Bryan Gillard, Kimberley Ramsey, Susan Sullivan, Jason Bridge, Harold Magazine, John Syron, Johnelle Fleming, Scott Jewell, Dan Rohrer, Dan Maxim, Dana Filkins, Philip Harbach, Eddie Cortadillo, Bree Berghuis, Lisa Turner, Eric Hudson, Kristin Feenstra, Leslie Sobin, James Robb, Phillip Branton, Greg Korzeniewski, Charles Shive, David Tabor, Liqun Qi, Kevin Groch, Sreenath Nampally, Steve Buia, Angela Zimmerman, Anna Smith, Robin Burges, Karna Robinson, Kim Valentino, Deborah Bradbury, Mark Cosentino, Norma Diaz-Mayoral, Mary Kennedy, Theresa Engel, Penelope Williams, Kenyon Erickson, Kristin Ardlie, Wendy Winckler, Gad Getz, David DeLuca, Daniel MacArthur, Manolis Kellis, Alexander Thomson, Taylor Young, Ellen Gelfand, Molly Donovan, Yan Meng, George Grant, Deborah Mash, Yvonne Marcus, Margaret Basile, Jun Liu, Jun Zhu, Zhidong Tu, Nancy J Cox, Dan L Nicolae, Eric R Gamazon, Hae Kyung Im, Anuar Konkashbaev, Jonathan Pritchard, Matthew Stevens, Timothèe Flutre, Xiaoquan Wen, Emmanouil T Dermitzakis, Tuuli Lappalainen, Roderic Guigo, Jean Monlong, Michael Sammeth, Daphne Koller, Alexis Battle, Sara Mostafavi, Mark McCarthy, Manual Rivas, Julian Maller, Ivan Rusyn, Andrew Nobel, Fred Wright, Andrey Shabalin, Mike Feolo, Nataliya Sharopova, Anne Sturcke, Justin Paschal, James M Anderson, Elizabeth L Wilder, Leslie K Derr, Eric D Green, Jeffery P Struewing, Gary Temple, Simona Volpi, Joy T Boyer, Elizabeth J Thomson, Mark S Guyer, Cathy Ng, Assya Abdallah, Deborah Colantuoni, Thomas R Insel, Susan E Koester, A Roger Little, Patrick K Bender, Thomas Lehner, Yin Yao, Carolyn C Compton, Jimmie B Vaught, Sherilyn Sawyer, Nicole C Lockhart, Joanne Demchok & Helen F Moore



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