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117-101 - Linux-General Linux, Part 1 - Dump Information

Vendor Name : LPI
Exam Code : 117-101
Exam Name : Linux-General Linux, Part 1
Questions and Answers : 644 Q & A
Updated On : October 15, 2018
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LPI 117-101 Exam (Linux-General Linux, Part 1) Detailed Information

LPI is the global certification standard and career support organization for open source professionals. With more than 500,000 exams delivered, it's the world’s first and largest vendor-neutral Linux and open source certification body. LPI has certified professionals in 181 countries, delivers exams in 9 languages, and has over 200 training partners.
Recommended for professionals: LPIC-1, LPIC-2 and LPIC-3
For IT professionals who want their Linux and open source skills verified in order to boost their career momentum, why wait? According to the Foote Partners report, ‘IT Skills and Certification Index’, there’s double-digit growth in bonuses paid to LPI certified candidates.
According to CompTIA HR perceptions of IT Training and Certification study:
96% use IT certifications as screening or hiring criteria during recruitment.
90% agree IT certified individuals are more likely to be promoted than those without.
89% think IT certified individuals perform better than non certified individuals in similar job roles.
88% say IT certified employees are rewarded (bonus and pay increase) for obtaining IT certification.
94% expect IT certification to grow in importance over the next two years.
88% believe it’s important to test after training to confirm knowledge gains.
97% value certification enough to provide support for IT employees obtaining certification.
The open source Jobs Report says hiring managers are looking for open source professionals.
34% are willing to aid with the cost of an employee's open source certification
59% are looking to increase open source hiring
74% have a need for developers
58% are seeking DevOps professionals
65% report open source hiring will rise more than hiring in other departments
87% say it's hard to find open source talent
"ManpowerGroup recently found that 36% of employers globally reported talent shortages in 2014—the highest percentage in seven years. In the United States, more than half (54%) of employers currently have open positions for which they can’t find qualified candidates. Unemployment rates for highly skilled workers continue to fall, job openings are on the rise and companies are finding an increased need to focus their attention on finding staff with job-specific skills needed to meet rapidly changing technologies.”
— ITCC, 2016 white paper, ’The trends that will affect the IT certification industry by 2020’
How open source professionals keep their skills up to date:
open source Jobs Report 2016 open source Jobs Report 2016
LPI tops the list of Linux certs by population according to Certification Magazine
1. Linux Professional Institute LPIC-1 37.9%
2. Linux Foundation Certified Systems Administrator (LFCS) 36.0%
3. Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) 24.2%
4. Red Hat Certified Systems Administrator (RHCSA) 22.2%
5. SUSE Certified Linux Administrator (CLA) 20.3%
6. CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI 18.3%
7. Linux Professional Institute LPIC-2 17.0%
8. Novell Certified Linux Professional 15.7%
9. Linux Foundation Certified Engineer 13.7%
10. Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA) 8.5%
How we create our certifications
LPI is committed to providing the IT community with exams of the highest quality, relevance, and accuracy. This commitment requires that our exam development process is highly detailed, participatory, consultative and employs many of the proven techniques used by most other IT certification programs.
Exam Development
LPI’s exam development process is detailed, thorough, participatory, collaborative and employs many proven techniques used by the best IT certification programs.
Psychometrics
Psychometrics, the study of testing and measuring mental capacity, is used throughout LPI certification development to ensure that our exams reflect the needs of the IT community and industry.
Development Structure
As a part of our ongoing certification development process we continually monitor the needs of the Linux and IT markets to ensure our exams effectively evaluate candidates on the most relevant skills.
When we began this process in the late 1990’s we initially launched a two-tiered certification track that became what is known as LPIC-1 and LPIC-2 today. Over the years we have expanded our offerings to include the third tier to the LPIC professional track with the three enterprise specialties of LPIC-3. We’ve also introduced an entry-level certificate program, Linux Essentials, for those seeking to add some Linux to their credentials.
Job Task Analysis
After development of a program structure and a job description for an exam or series, the next stage is to scientifically determine the skills, tasks and areas of knowledge needed for the job. The challenge: Anyone could come up with a list of tasks they think a Linux professional should be able to do. If you ask 10 Linux professionals what a “junior-level” professional should do, you might get 10 lists.
Which list is correct?
Our solution: We ask a large number of Linux professionals for their lists of necessary job duties, and then compile the responses to find the common and most important tasks. The most important tasks show up on all lists.
This process is called job analysis study or job task analysis. LPI has completed extensive job analysis surveys of Linux professionals to help ensure exams are unbiased and constructed fairly.
How we do it:
Pre-survey
First we work with a large pool of subject-matter experts to compile an exhaustive list of all the tasks that they think might be performed by the target audience of the certification.
Job Analysis Survey
Next, the tasks collected during the pre-survey go into a job analysis survey. This survey asks practicing Linux professionals to rate each task in several ways:
Frequency: How often they perform the task.
Importance: How important it is for an administrator to be able to perform the task.
Data analysis
Finally, we conduct statistical analysis of the survey responses. We compute statistics indicating, on average, how critical respondents rated each task. This analysis guides the determination of the final job task list.
Objective Development
The third major stage of development is converting the results from the Job Analysis Study to develop the actual objectives for the exam(s). Objectives express specific things that Linux professionals must be able to do. Each objective is assigned a weighting value indicating its importance relative to other objectives.
Initial Objective Drafting
First, a small group of people with knowledge of both Linux technical issues and psychometric principles drafted an initial set of test objectives, basing them upon the results of the job analysis study.
Objective Review and Revision
After the draft objectives are created, they are placed online in a web based system for public review and comment. This system organizes objectives by exam and content topic, displaying the objectives themselves, along with links to additional documentation about the objectives. Public comments about objectives are collected and then supervisors review the comments and revise the objectives as necessary. The most recent review and revision of the objectives is posted publicly on our LPI Exam Development wiki and we send them to our community and ExamDev mailing list for comments and input.
When the objectives are finalized, we post them to LPI.org and let our community as well as courseware and training providers know, so that the training materials can be updated to reflect the new exam material.
Item Development
Once the objectives are finalized, we being the process of writing questions, called items, for exams. Security is a major concern in item development. All items are kept as confidential as possible by having those involved in the process sign non-disclosure agreements agreeing not to disclose item content to anyone. LPI also takes other undisclosed security precautions.
Item writing
Historically, the process used to develop the items for most other IT certification exams was to fly a group of subject-matter experts into a location for a week or more, give them training in how to write items, and then have them work intensely to create the questions.
But this technique is expensive and exclusive. At LPI, during our initial exam development phase we leveraged the power of the community through the internet to encouraged everyone who was interested and knowledgeable to help with item writing.
Since then, LPI has developed new items for exam rotation in house by tapping the knowledge of subject matter experts, online volunteers and participants in item writing workshops.
Item Screening
Supervisors screened all submitted exam items, and accepted, rejected or reworded them. They focused on three criteria:
Redundancy: Items that are substantially identical to previously submitted items are rejected.
Phrasing and Clarity: Items phrased in confusing or otherwise inappropriate ways are rejected or reworded. Supervisors pay attention to ensure that questions can be understood by non-native English speakers.
Accuracy: Supervisors rejected or reworded items that are not technically accurate.
Item Technical Review
Next, LPI uses a group of Linux experts to put items through a technical review. Each item is reviewed by multiple experts. Each expert classifies items as approved, rejected or “other” for rewording or review by others.
The primary technical criteria:
Correctness
Appropriateness of distractors (for multiple-choice items): Reviewers ensure that the distractor answer choices are incorrect but reasonably plausible.
Phrasing and clarity: Reviewers ensure items are worded in appropriate language.
Relevance
Expected difficulty
Supervisors then collect the reviews to determine if each item was:
Accepted based on consensus
Rejected based on consensus
Accepted after further review: If reviewers did not agree, the supervisor might accept it, perhaps based on the opinion of another reviewer.
Rejected after further review: If reviewers did not agree, the supervisor might reject it, perhaps based on the opinion of another reviewer.
Accepted after revision: In some cases, reviewers might suggest rewording the item and the supervisor might accept the item after rewording it.
Exam Creation
Live Form Creation
The next stage of development involves assembling items into exams for global deployment. Each test has multiple forms. If candidates fails one form and retake the exam, they receive the different form of the exam on retake attempt.
The Pearson VUE test engine randomly orders the questions of each form when someone takes the exam to ensure two candidates taking the same exam are not tested on the same questions in the same order.
Initial Exam Publishing
Once the LPI psychometric staff has determined the composition of forms, the exam must be converted from text-based items into the actual exam file format to deployed globally through LPI’s network of testing centers.
The exam enter a period of initial testing to determine if the questions are in fact measuring skills and competencies. In IT certification, this period is known as the beta testing period.
During the beta period, candidates can register for tests and complete them at local events. They receive credit, but candidates do not receive scores back immediately after the exam. Beta exams often involve extra questions with an extended-time format as well as additional survey and demographic questions. Several simultaneous processes determine the cut score, so that exams may be evaluated and scored.
Obtaining Enough Exams
Before the passing score can be set, LPI had to accumulate an adequate number of exams taken by people who are similar to the target job description. As our support has grown, our target data numbers continue to grow, helping to generate the most accurate results. As part of the beta exam process, demographic data is taken into account by psychometric staff when reviewing the validity of questions.
Reviewing the Questions
As tests results roll in, psychometric staff start to examine the data. Asking questions such as: Are there questions that everyone gets correct? Are there questions that everyone fails? to determine if there anything wrong with the questions. Exam comments collected during the process are reviewed and questions and concerns are addressed.
Modified Angoff Study
While psychometric staff review incoming data, a separate pool of subject-matter experts simultaneously participated in a modified Angoff study. Their goal, to provide the psychometric staff with additional data to validate questions and assist in setting the passing score.
During this process, the experts:
Receive copies of the exam questions on each form.
Look at each question independently and in consultation with each other and make judgments about how likely a minimally qualified person meeting the job requirements described in a specification sheet would be able to answer the question correctly. In other words, the experts consider the question from the perspective of someone who is at the bottom of the competence scale for job performance.
Rate each question with their estimate of what percentage of people will answer correctly, keeping in mind that on multiple choice questions, some people will get it right by virtue of guessing.
Ideally, the results from the Angoff study should parallel the actual results from the exams in the beta period. Beyond validating item performance, the results of the Angoff study are also used in helping to establish the passing score for exams.
Distributing Score Results
After all of the data collection, the analysis and the Angoff study, the psychometric staff set a passing score, and distribute scores to exam takers who participated in the beta.
Exam Republishing
Once the beta has been completed, the passing score has been set, and any bad items have been removed or fixed, the exam is ready to be re-published. This work involves significant review and can take a month or more to complete. Once this final review process is complete, we coordinate with Pearson VUE and our partner network to publish the finalized exams for all test takers worldwide.
Why Written Exams
Written exams are a global standard.
Multiple choice is a common standard for most certification and licensure exams. Whether you want to be a doctor, lawyer, or chartered accountant, most professions require that you pass a multiple-choice exam. The procedures for producing high-quality multiple choice exams are firmly established. No such standard exists for hands-on exams. Therefore they tend to be ad hoc and rarely include pilot testing, item analysis, formal standard setting, and equating.
Written exams are valid.
Written job knowledge exams have approximately the same levels of predictive validity as job simulations (Roth et al., 2005)
Written exams are more efficient.
Written exams with individual questions are more efficient than exams with more complex item types. For example, Jodoin (2003) examined innovative item types on an IT certification exam that required examinees to construct answers (e.g. draw a network diagram). He found that these constructed response items provided more information but also took additional time. As a result, he concluded that, “multiple-choice items provide more information per unit time.”
Written exams cover all objectives.
Certification exams (like LPI’s) cover a broad range of knowledge areas. Using individual items, written exams can easily ensure adequate coverage of all objectives. Because of practical constraints, hands-on testing must either sample narrowly from these objectives or cover a much smaller body of knowledge.
Written exams are more valuable.
Hands-on testing is typically more expensive in all phases, including item development, pilot testing, administration, and scoring. If hands-on testing is more expensive but not more reliable or valid, then it offers less value.
Written exams are more reliable and objective.
Scoring practices for open-ended exams vary considerably, but the literature on scoring constructed responses suggests that subjective scoring is often less reliable than the scoring of traditional items. The literature on job performance suggests that objective measures of performance are also unreliable.

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117-101 Linux-General Linux, Part 1

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117-101 exam Dumps Source : Linux-General Linux, Part 1

Test Code : 117-101
Test Name : Linux-General Linux, Part 1
Vendor Name : LPI
Q&A : 644 Real Questions

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LPI LPI Linux-General Linux, Part

group efforts in Linux certification | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

June 5, 2000Web posted at: 10:19 a.m. EDT (1419 GMT)

with the aid of Joe Barr

(IDG) -- I should still be learning. I should be in a classroom. I should be cramming for my examination. but i am not. i am sitting here at my computing device dutifully writing this column, despite the fact that i do know that at about this time next week, i'll be in Austin, Texas, taking the primary of two stage 1 LPI Linux certification exams. i do know i am now not going to do very neatly, but it's good enough; i am not obligated to humiliate myself by way of revealing my ranking. After taking each tests for stage 1, however, I should have a good looking good conception of what's considered a suitable degree of capabilities for a junior Linux system administrator.

Linux certification is an idea that has been round for a very long time and is now coming to fruition. There are two fundamental entities working to give Linux professionals with credentials. the first is SAIR; the second is LPI, the Linux knowledgeable Institute. if you are not widely wide-spread with Linux certification, i like to recommend Eileen Cohen's remarkable analysis, which seemed in LinuxWorld prior this yr. The URL is given under within the elements component of this article.

The goals of both primary organizations are very identical. The fundamental change is that SAIR is a for-profit business enterprise providing each testing and practising, while LPI is a nonprofit company focusing completely on checking out. Wave technologies, which currently bought SAIR, is basically an immense provider of IT practicing.

both LPI and SAIR seek to develop Linux within the commercial enterprise. every has impeccable credentials of its personal. one of the brightest lights within the open source world serve on SAIR's advisory board. LPI is comfortably a part of the Linux group doing anything that must be accomplished.

Evan Leibovitch, who has been worried with Unix and Linux for a long time, and who has written about Linux for the previous 5 years, is without doubt one of the founders of the LPI. Evan requested these days if i would like to take the primary-degree LPI examination, at the moment in beta. I hesitated a day earlier than accepting the present, for no rationale apart from fear of failing.

at the start I hoped that i'd be able to take the look at various on-line, however the tests are only given in managed environments, in order that americans do not make it an open ebook test or have proxies take the examination for them. however VUE (virtual university businesses), which administers the certification checks for LPI, has three places within the Austin enviornment, so discovering a close-by testing middle become not a problem. i am booked for 10:30 a.m. on may additionally 31. suppose decent thoughts for me.

neighborhood efforts

i am all the time amazed and a bit in awe of what the people in the Linux group take it upon themselves to do. LPI isn't any exception. Now about 1,000 powerful, and less than two years ancient, it's finishing beta checking out on its stage 1 certification software as I category. be sure you be capable of earn your LPI degree 1 certification as early as this summer. Work is already underway on the degree 2 assessments, and a 3rd degree, for senior administrators, will comply with.

Evan has been concerned with Unix for a long time, and with Linux due to the fact that 1995. As a journalist, he has written about each, and he presently writes a weekly column on Linux for ZDNet. He instructed me that he can nevertheless remember when he first acquired hooked by way of Linux. It become on the November 1995 Unix Expo in ny, following Novell's announcement that it was selling its Unix interests to SCO. Evan spoke of, "I spent many of the leisure of the day on the compartments of Caldera and purple Hat, which had very tiny booths at that show. And basically that became the start of my getting hooked."

The present LPI corporation is mixed from two separate mailing lists and a 3rd Linux neighborhood certification undertaking, Digital Metrics. Evan became not satisfied with without problems writing about Linux and have become an lively member of the group. He helped to found CLUE, the Canadian Linux clients trade, and it changed into from CLUE's conventional mailing checklist that the first roots of the LPI regarded.

Evan noted that someone on the listing asked what Linux crucial to make it into the mainstream. The reply that got here up most often was certification, and shortly the subject warranted an inventory of its personal. among the many early individuals on the record changed into Dr. Tobin Maginnis, founder and president of SAIR.

In 1998, Dan York wrote a piece of writing about certification in the Linux Gazette, and it generated satisfactory activity that a mailing checklist fashioned around it as smartly. no longer lengthy afterwards, certainly one of Linux's roving ambassadors, Jon "maddog" corridor, added Evan and Dan. The influence became a merger of the lists and the formation of LPI.

LPI has made brilliant strides due to the fact that its formation a 12 months and a half in the past. For one factor, participants have rethought how LPI would deal with the difficulty of checking out for distribution-specific knowledge. firstly, LPI planned to present two exams, one regularly occurring and one distribution selected. Candidates would have all needed to take the ordinary exam, and then pick the distribution for which they desired to be established partly two.

however as LPI participants regarded greater intently on the remarks received from the group in regards to the kinds of things that a junior, intermediate, and superior Linux admin should comprehend, they found out that the places where the distributions had been distinct -- basically their setting up and alternative of GUI -- weren't areas that essential to be confirmed that deeply.

as a substitute, the americans at LPI have designed one part of the 2nd examination to deal with alterations between dpkg and RPM equipment administration. Evan noted, "It turned into no longer low in cost to have an exam that might cowl simple admin tasks that didn't cope with package administration." however he delivered that in case you be aware of best dpkg and never RPM, or vice versa, you might be capable of pass.

If i am no longer completely humiliated through the exam, i could take the second part as smartly and supply as many particulars about it as i am allowed. I can not file on any particular questions, of route, however i could cover subject matters, durability, and the test atmosphere.

searching forward

looking towards the future, LPI plans to have the 2nd degree of trying out, for the intermediate Linux system administrator, attainable in below a 12 months. No timetable has been set for the third-stage look at various, which will be launched sometime after the 2d. Evan also informed me that LPI is working closely with the Linux average Base (LSB), in order that when LSB finalizes its specification, it turns into the groundwork for the LPI testing.

Will SAIR and LPI ever merge? I don't accept as true with it will be a foul aspect in the event that they did, however I in my opinion don't see the way it can turn up. A founding precept of LPI turned into the separation of training and checking out, and SAIR is owned via a practicing enterprise. So in certification, just like so many different aspects of Linux and the open supply group, we're blessed with choice.

My tackle all of here is that folks like Evan and Dan and the entire others who've contributed time, funds, ideas, or effort to LPI are doing the entire rest of the Linux neighborhood a very fantastic carrier. The enterprise is eager no longer only for Linux itself, however for qualified gurus to manage it. The certification of a pool of Linux professionals can simplest assist to speed its deployment.

related studies:

Linux struggles to get beuond the WebJune 2, 2000Troubleshooting the Linux wayMay 17, 2000Two Linux requirements agencies mix into oneMay 10, 2000Security company warns of pink Hat Piranha 'back door'April 27, 2000Linux livin' colossal on mainframeApril 5, 2000

connected IDG.net stories:

high demand for preliminary vendor-neutral Linux certification checks(Linuxworld)simply useful: Spare, powerful pcs for Linux(Linuxworld)New equipment on horizon enhance Linux attraction(Computerworld New Zealand)Troubleshooting the Linux manner(Linuxworld)Embedded Linux fundamentals(Linuxworld)Two Linux requisites organizations mix into one(Computerworld)Open supply smugglers(Computerworld)How the Linux community is attempting to avoid Unix's errors(The trade common)

linked websites:

LPI's homepageVUE testing centersWave TechnologiesCanadian Linux users trade

observe: Pages will open in a brand new browser window

exterior sites don't seem to be endorsed through CNN Interactive.

Nigeria: Open supply application As business solution | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

related issues
  • enterprise

    Southern Africa: Air Zimbabwe aircraft with Technical issues Refused touchdown at Bulawayo

    Kenya: New-seem Kenyan foreign money Notes to quickly Go Into Circulation

  • ICT

    Africa: Can massive cash and massive statistics Make Famine a factor of the previous?

    Ethiopia: Meet Betelhem Dessie, Ethiopia's leading Tech Queen

  • evaluation with the aid of Remmy Nweke.

    Lagos — "the use of open supply software because the basis of your development can cut your construction time and funds with the aid of 50 per cent," Accenture Australia.

    as soon as upon a time, a business entity possibly according to Open source took over the Nigeria's application scene, with automobiles and office outlets deliberately decorated with Linux brand and colour. for many native industry observers, it turned into a novel and classical entrance into the scene that has been common and described as 'non-performing' and 'non-ecocnomic'.

    ...

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    Curtin partners Pearson VUE to install checking out facility | killexams.com Real Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    staff and examine candidates at the examine centre.

    MIRI: Curtin university, Malaysia and Pearson VUE, the computing device-primarily based trying out (CBT) company of international discovering business Pearson, have set up the Curtin Pearson VUE authorized check Centre at the tuition’s campus following the signing of an contract between both corporations closing month.

    The test centre serves as a testing facility for candidates pursuing key business certifications from leading IT programmes corresponding to Cisco, The Computing expertise industry association (CompTIA), Dell EMC, Hewlett-Packard, Linux professional Institute (LPI), Oracle and VMware.

    “we're enthusiastic about our partnership with Pearson VUE, an organization whose industry fame, know-how and passion for excellence will support us give magnificent provider to our valued clientele,” talked about dean of the college of Engineering and Science at Curtin Malaysia, Ir Professor Lau Hieng Ho.

    “The company’s checking out device is the most superior purchasable and provides us unparalleled handle and flexibility in managing our testing activities according to our wants. It skill we are able to readily offer same-day testing and even habits testing at our purchasers’ areas,” he added.

    Pearson VUE’s superior device administers examinations on behalf of hundreds of businesses, boards and corporations all over during the world’s greatest, most cozy network of examine centres.

    The listing of certification exams purchasable from check sponsors during the system is turning out to be.

    verify results are straight away transmitted again, guaranteeing the candidate’s certification status is quickly updated.

    Vice-president (company building) of Pearson VUE, Ray Murray talked about they're proud to welcome Curtin Malaysia to the hastily turning out to be world community of Pearson VUE accepted examine Centres.

    “At Pearson VUE, we accept as true with trying out and certification are on the heart of the researching adventure, and Curtin Malaysia will play its part by using providing accessible and comfy trying out facilities to candidates. collectively, we're providing much more candidates with the chance to acquire big certifications and advance their careers,” Pearson added.

    Pearson VUE authorised look at various Centres are privately owned, third celebration testing amenities which give on-web site, on-demand testing for certification and skilled licensure assessments.

    Pearson VUE is a company of Pearson, the international schooling enterprise, whose corporations include the fiscal instances group, Pearson training and Penguin group.

    It offers capabilities from verify construction to statistics management, and supplies tests through the most finished and cozy network of examine centres in additional than one hundred seventy five countries.

    those interested to take their tests at the Curtin Pearson VUE verify Centre can electronic mail Shahrina Sahril at [email protected], Veeramani Shanmugam at [email protected] or Foad Motalebi at [email protected]

    What do you suppose of this story?

  • 117-101 Linux-General Linux, Part 1

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    Linux-General Linux, Part 1

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    Doing Date Math on the Command Line, Part I | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    If you've ever used a spreadsheet, you've probably used or seen functions for doing date math—in other words, taking one date and adding some number of days or months to it to get a new date, or taking two dates and finding the number days between them. The same thing can be done from the command line using the lowly date command, possibly with a little help from Bash's arithmetic.

    The two most important features of the date command to understand for doing date math are the +FORMAT option and the --date option. The formatting option allows you to format the date in different ways or get just certain parts of the date, such as the year, the month, the day and so on:

    $ date '+%Y' 2018 $ date '+%m' 09 $ date '+%d' 16

    There are a few dozen formatting options; see the date(1) man page for more.

    The second option, the --date (or -d) option, allows you to specify the date to use, rather than the current date:

    $ date --date 'March 1, 2015' "+%Y" 2015 $ date --date='March 1, 2015' "+%m" 03 $ date -d 'March 1, 2015' "+%d" 01

    The interesting part of the --date option is that it allows you to specify date strings in a variety of ways. For example, given the above date of "March 1, 2015", you can calculate dates relative to it:

    $ date --date 'March 1, 2015 +7 days' Sun Mar 8 00:00:00 MST 2015 $ date --date 'March 1, 2015 -1 year' Sat Mar 1 00:00:00 MST 2014 $ date --date 'March 1, 2015 +12 days +12 hours +15 minutes' Fri Mar 13 12:15:00 MST 2015

    You also can use strings that refer to previous or upcoming days of the week (relative to the current date):

    $ date --date 'last Monday' Mon Sep 10 00:00:00 MST 2018 $ date --date 'next Monday' Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 MST 2018

    Note, however, that combining a date and things like "next Monday" does not work. The date(1) man page has a bit more information about the types of date strings you can specify, however, the GNU Info date page has much more complete documentation.

    So now that you've seen the basics of doing date math, let's use it to do something. This example comes from some recent scripts I was working on while organizing Linux Journal's online archives. Each month we publish a new issue. Each issue has an issue number that's one more than the previous issue. Issue numbers are easy to deal with when specifying arguments to a script, but readers tend to think more in terms of months and years. So in a couple places I needed to generate months and years from issue numbers.

    To not complicate the example, let's ignore a couple breaks in LJ's publishing history. So, let's use issue #284 from March 2018 as the starting point and make all calculations relative to it. The script takes one or more issue numbers and prints out the month and year corresponding to that issue number:

    $ cat date1.sh 1 for inum in $* 2 do 3 [[ "$inum" =~ ^[0-9]{1,4}$ ]] || { echo "Invalid issue number: $inum"; continue; } 4 5 month=$(date --date="March 1, 2018 +$((inum - 284)) month" +'%B') 6 year=$(date --date="March 1, 2018 +$((inum - 284)) month" +'%Y') 7 printf "Issue %d is from %s, %s\n" $inum $month $year 8 done $ bash date1.sh 284 285 Issue 284 is from March, 2018 Issue 285 is from April, 2018

    Lines 5 and 6 calculate the number of issues that have elapsed since issue 284 using Bash's arithmetic expression syntax: $((inum - 284)). That result then is used to add that many months onto the date of the first issue, which gives the date of the issue in question. Then the date command's format options provides the month and year (the %B and %Y format specifiers, respectively). Those values next are used to print out the month and year of the issue. And just in case you were wondering, issue #1000 will be coming out in November 2077.

    One thing that can you trip you up when doing date math is that if you use dates near the end of the month when adding or subtracting months, you can end up with unexpected results. This is because the date command uses the same value for the length of each month when it adds months and ignores the fact that not all months are the same length. So, for example, look what happens if you change the reference date in the script above from the start of the month to the end of the month:

    $ cat date2.sh 5 month=$(date --date="March 31, 2018 +$((inum - 284)) month" +'%B') 6 year=$(date --date="March 31, 2018 +$((inum - 284)) month" +'%Y') $ bash date2.sh 284 285 Issue 284 is from March, 2018 Issue 285 is from May, 2018

    This incorrectly labels issue 285 as being in May rather than April. You can verify this if you run the effective date command by itself:

    $ date --date="March 31, 2018 +1 month" Tue May 1 00:00:00 MST 2018

    Since April has only 30 days, you end up skipping to the first of May.

    The other common type of date math that I mentioned above is calculating the difference between two dates. Unfortunately, the date command doesn't support this directly. To do that, you need to convert the dates in question into the number of seconds since the epoch (using the %s format specifier), and then subtract the values and divide by the number of seconds in a day (86,400) to get the days in between:

    $ cat date3.sh start_date="March 1, 2018" end_date="March 31, 2018" sdate=$(date --date="$start_date" '+%s') edate=$(date --date="$end_date" '+%s') days=$(( (edate - sdate) / 86400 )) echo "$days days between $start_date and $end_date" $ bash date3.sh 30 days between March 1, 2018 and March 31, 2018

    In part two of this article, I plan to tackle how to get a specific previous day of the week relative to a specific date (which, as I noted above, is not directly doable with the date command). In other words, I want to be able to do something that effectively does the following:

    $ date --date 'March 1, 2015 previous Monday' # won't work date: invalid date ‘March 1 2015 previous Monday’

    Everything Is A File In Linux - Part 2 | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Divided into 2 parts, in the first part I introduced the concept that everything is a file and I introduced special devices/dev/ null, / dev / zero, / dev / random and / dev / full. In this part 2, I will present interesting didactic features about this, for example, how to transform a file into a partition! Reading this post requires prior knowledge of Part 1! You are a scholar who has the following knowledge:
  • If I format a hard drive or pen drive, I'm setting a partition on a media - MBR, GPT, BSD, Amiga, etc... - and, inside it, I'll save my data, files, the installation of my OS, anyway... Each partition on disk allows me to apply a different file system - NTFS, EXT4, FAT32 and etc - and within that file system I will install the system and put my personal files.
  • With that in mind, let's make a little joke, quite simple:

    ​1. Create a 4Gb file filled with zeros using the DD command. It will be created in / home / $ USER; change this path if you do not have enough disk space.

    $ dd if = / dev / zero of = ~ / test bs = 1M count = 4096

    2. Now let's format this file. Yes, and more, it will have the EXT4 format in our example! A little confused? Trust me, buddy. Come on:

    $ mkfs.ext4 -m .005 ~ / test

    The -m flag in the command causes us to decrease the "root" space that the EXT4 sets to 05 by default. This is even useful for installing a system and preventing EXT4 from consuming a lot of disk space by default.

    ​3. Formatted? Okay, now you have a 4GB file of type "unknown" called "test" in your / home, and nothing else opens it. Sit in a chair (if you're not already in one) and note that now comes the best part:

    ​Mount it as a partition!

    $ sudo mkdir / media / test$ sudo mount -rw ~ / test / media / test /

    Hey buddy congratulations, you not only created a file in .EXT4 format, you created an EXT4 PARTY inside a common file in your / home and you can still store things inside it!​The same procedure can be done for any file format: EXT2, FAT32, NTFS etc. Everything only depends on your need!

    But do not think you can install Windows on it, as it is a partition inside a partition, who manages it under EXT4 (or btrfs, or xfs depending on your system). It's also tricky to mount it as a partition on a Windows since the system does not operate as UNIX-based devices reading block devices as files, but treating them differently. You can even force your assembly with the -F flag but only UNIX-based systems will recognize it and mount it. This detail has been made explicit here.

    As I explained in Part 1, "everything is a file":

    That is, a folder, a directory, a partition (that is, things that store things) are nothing more than "index files" that define what's in it sector of your disk or SSD. When they say that UNIX-based systems have a philosophy of simplicity, it's this simplicity we're talking about: Everything is just a file, palpable, simple and functional, easily manipulated, bluntly.​The biggest lesson here is that you just learn how basic way Virtualization of an operating system (VirtualBox): You create a partition in a file (in VirtualBox it is in .vdi format) and within you install your system.

  • And what do I do with this 4 Gb EXT4 partition here?
  • Oh, you can store things in it, you can install an entire operating system on it (non-Windows, preferably), you can put it on a USB stick to enhance the security of your files, you can encrypt it and turn it into a safe, it inside an HD with Windows formatted as NTFS, so it will be hidden .... or just disassemble and delete it!Some file systems such as JFS operate by allowing for better organization of data if they are small (text documents) and in other cases like XFS if they are large files (disk images, HD photos, .flac songs). Having a virtual partition with one of these formats can optimize the disk space consumed.
  • And how do I dismantle her?
  • Ah, simple:

    $ sudo umount / media / test

    After that, you can play this file-partition in the trash.

    Conclusion

    In this second and last part of the session "Did You Know? Everything is File "I have said about the virtual partitioning of files to be used as disk partitions and some advantages of these. Along with the earlier part, where I board on special devices, there is knowledge that can be added to any Linux student (or other UNIX-based systems), improving their understanding of how a system works.


    Hot Shot 011 – Jenkins on AWS (Part 1) [Podcast] | killexams.com real questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    Hello there once again, welcome to another hot shot. My name is Peter Pilgrim.

    I have been a DevOps specialist, welcome to another episode. This is hotshot 11 Jenkins n AWS part one, I have been a platform engineer and I am a Java Champion.

    In this episode, I am going talk about setting up your own Jenkins server on AWS. I will cover simple and straightforward case, deploying just one Jenkins server on AMI. In a subsequent episode, I will talk about Jenkins main and slave nodes.

    In order to follow along, I going to assume that you are already familiar AWS EC2 and how to create instances, how to start them, how to stop them and definitely how to terminate them. If you are unsure about any of this, then you need to step back and learn how AWS works beforehand.

    In a subsequent show, I will cover Jenkins AWS EC2 instance with master and slave show.

    Let's move on. The way I started with Jenkins is that I chose an Amazon Machine Image, AMI and namely with a typical burstable instance ( t2.micro)

    Navigate to your AWS console for your AWS account, go to into Services drop down, navigate to the EC2 dashboard. I selected the Amazon Linux AMI 201803 and the t2.micro (and this is also free-tier eligible). This AMI has 1 VCPU, 1 GB of memory and low-to-moderate performance. I configure this AMI to your VPC, you don't need anything particularly sexy as your VPC, you can use the default one if you are experimenting. You might need a subnet and CIDR/range if you are running in a corporate environment (talk to your technical lead/head of DevOps/cloud administration for the necessary permissions and information). You do need an auto-assignment public IP, accept the 8GB HDD and add a name tag like "Jenkins master". It takes about 3 minutes to create this EC2 instance. On year, enjoy in your security group that inbound HTTP port 8080 and SSH port 20 are set.

    So I created a Jenkins server master in your EC2 instance, check and verify the settings. Launch the EC2 instance. You don't need to create any user data at all.

    Now you need to look at my blog article, since this radio. You now need to SSH into the running EC2 instance, which will run Jenkins, with the public IP. Log into the instance as the ec2user.

    First, you must execute a YUM update.

    sudo yum update -y

    We, then, add a Jenkins repository and start the System V job.

    $ sudo wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/jenkins.repo http://pkg.jenkins-ci.org/redhat/jenkins.repo $ sudo rpm --import https://pkg.jenkins.io/redhat/jenkins.io.key $ sudo yum install jenkins -y

    At this moment, you should be to browse Jenkins running on the EC2 instance. Point your favorite browser to http://publicly-assigned-IP-address:8080/

    You will be greeted with a screen requiring a master password. You will find it under the following

    $ ls -l /var/lib/jenkins/secrets/initialAdminPassword $ sudo cat /var/lib/jenkins/secrets/initialAdminPassword

    Stop the Jenkins Server now with the command sudo service jenkins sta rt

    In this Amazon AMI linux, I remove the older Java 7 packages and then installed OpenJDK 8 and the runtime environment.

    $ which java $ java -version $ sudo yum remove java-1.7.0-openjdk

    Now install JDK 8 with the following:

    $ sudo yum install java-1.8.0-openjdk java-1.8.0-openjdk-devel $ which java $ java -version $ ls -l /usr/bin/java $ ls -l /etc/alternatives/java $ ls -l /usr/lib/jvm

    I also install extra Linux utilities in order to send email to other servers.

     sudo yum install git mailx mailutils 

    Here is you might want to also GNU C++ and other native libraries for the Redhat Linux, however, this is going to be lightweight Jenkins server. So YAGNI rule applies

    I physically use WGet to download Apache Maven, Gradle, and Groovy.

    $ mkdir ~/Products $ cd ~/Products $ wget http://www.mirrorservice.org/sites/ftp.apache.org/maven/maven-3/3.5.4/binaries/apache-maven-3.5.4-bin.zip $ sudo unzip apache-maven-3.5.4-bin.zip -d /usr/local/ $ wget https://dl.bintray.com/groovy/maven/apache-groovy-binary-2.5.2.zip $ sudo unzip apache-groovy-binary-2.5.2.zip -d /usr/local $ wget https://services.gradle.org/distributions/gradle-4.9-bin.zip $ sudo unzip gradle-4.9-bin.zip -d /usr/local

    I also set up my favorite Bash Profile for Linux, which is cut down version without all the bells and whistles. It looks a little bit like this:

    ### .${HOME}/bash_profile # Get the aliases and functions if [ -f ~/.bashrc ]; then . ~/.bashrc fi # User specific environment and startup programs export GRADLE_HOME=/usr/local/gradle-4.9 export GROOVY_HOME=/usr/local/groovy-2.5.2 export M2_HOME=/usr/local/apache-maven-3.5.4 export JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-1.8.0-openjdk.x86_64 export ORIGINAL_PATH=/usr/local/bin:/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:/opt/aws/bin:${HOME}/.local/bin:${HOME}/bin PATH=.:${HOME}/.local/bin:${HOME}/bin:\ ${GRADLE_HOME}/bin:${GROOVY_HOME}/bin:${M2_HOME}/bin:\ ${JAVA_HOME}/bin:${JAVA_HOME}/jre/bin:\ /usr/local/bin:/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/sbin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:/opt/aws/bin export PATH

    Note from the above that I saved the original AMI default system PATH just in case of a SNAFU.

    I then stopped and restarted the Jenkins access with the administration password.

    Go back to the AWS console, EC2 dashboard. Create a custom AMI for your private purposes and name something Jenkins master Linux AMI.

    Side note: Yes I already know, you set up Jenkins on AWS using a configuration tool like Ansible or Terraform, but it is better for learners to get to grip directly with the AWS Console and EC2 Dashboard before they use intermediate tools.

    That's all for me. Bye for now.

    Topics:

    devops ,aws ,tutorial ,jenkins ,pipelines



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